Work-Integrated Learning

What is Work-Integrated Learning???

Definition of work-integrated learning






Work Integrated Learning Activities Guide:





Work-integrated Learning has emerged as a key pedagogical strategy to enhance student learning and development. In addition, it is also intended to serve as a resources to enhance student learning and development in higher education through the structured work experience.





Definitions and Differences



So, after reviewing the points above, it would be clear that assessment and evaluation are completely different. While evaluation involves making judgments, assessment is concerned with correcting the deficiencies in one’s performance. Although, they play a crucial role in analysing and refining the performance of a person, product, project or process.


Classroom assessment and evaluation is like a feedback. Besides that, classroom assessment and evaluation calls on teachers to become agents of change in their classrooms actively using the results of assessment to modify and improve the learning environments they create. In conclusion, assessment and evaluation also give teachers useful information about how to improve their teaching methods.



The Fourth Industrial Revolution

The First Industrial Revolution used water and steam power to mechanize production. The Second used electric power to create mass production. The Third used electronics and information technology to automate production. Now a Fourth Industrial Revolution is building on the Third, the digital revolution that has been occurring since the middle of the last century. It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres.

The fourth revolution is unfolding before our eyes. Its genesis is situated at the dawn of the third millennium with the emergence of the Internet. This is the first industrial revolution rooted in a new technological phenomenon,digitalization-rather than in the emergence of a new type of energy. This digitalization enables us to build a new virtual world from which we can steer the physical world.

This Fourth Industrial Revolution is, however, fundamentally different. It is characterized by a range of new technologies that are fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds, impacting all disciplines, economies and industries, and even challenging ideas about what it means to be human.

The current era of Industry 4.0 is being shaped through big data analytics, artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality, 3D printing, drones and the Internet of Things (IoT).

What makes 4th Industrial Revolution so special?

As with any revolution, society and citizens of that era are the beneficiaries and the ones that are affected. 4th industrial revolution is special for our generation, as it is going change the societal fabric of our times. Unlike the previous ones, this industrial revolution has larger impacts on us from technological, biological, economic, societal and ethical perspective.

According to Professor Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum, the impact is profound as this revolution is evolving with greater velocity, affecting various industries, economies, and countries across the world and calling for a total overhaul of the existing systems and processes.


The Fourth Industrial Revolution is a fascinating, comprehensive and enlightening dialogue highlighting the many different benefits and challenges that humankind can expect as we move further forward into a new and unfamiliar wave of industrial development. Those with an interest in where we are headed as a society, but who find themselves overwhelmed by the synonymous talk of ‘Industry 4.0’, ‘smart factories’ and ‘factories of the future’ can hope to find their questions answered and concerns addressed by this illustrative and informative new publication.


Society 5.0

Every day, it seems, we hear more about ‘Industry 4.0’ Japan, however, is already moving on.

In April 2016, the Japanese government enacted the 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan. It covers many aspects, including innovation promotion and internationalization. A focus point, however, is the development of the society towards a Super Smart Society, the Society 5.0.

Prime Minister’s Office released Japan’s Growth Strategy 2017, which lays out a strategic blueprint for Japan’s ‘Society 5.0,’ including specific plans for the deep integration of cutting-edge technologies to solve economic and social problems.

Essentially, Japan is planning to create a “super-smart society” capable of providing customized solutions through the adoption of new technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, Big Data, and drones as well as through policy and regulatory reform.

Society 5.0 aims to empower all actors in the society, placing a special emphasis on enabling each individual to actively participate and live safely, comfortably and securely.


The evolutionary aspect of the Society 5.0 concept as introduced in the 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan of Japan – source Keidanren paper.

Japan moved boldly by calling the future development Society 5.0. It implies that changes will concern every aspect of society, not only industrial production. Germany intends the same, but the tendency got distorted through the buzzword Industry4.0.


Model & Theory


The term “model” is used to refer to an abstract representation or a projection of a possibility with an underlying theory as the basic.

Model can also be defined as a physical representation of a theory.

A model is a representation of something that provides us with a structure.

Model is a thing used as an example to follow or imitate or a simplified description, especially a mathematical one, of a system or process, to assist calculation and predictions.


A theory is a set of ideas that provides us an explanation to something.

A theory is a conceptualized framework.

Theory as an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain facts or events.

An idea that is suggested or presented as possibly true but that is not known or proven to be true.

A theory is always proven scientifically with evidence.

Theory is a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained


Watson Behaviorism


Meaning of Behaviorism

Behaviorism is a worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.” All behavior caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning). All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.On the other hand, according to Watson, behaviorism was the science of observable behavior. Only behavior that could be observed, recorded and measured was of any real value for the study of humans or animals.Watson (1928) more plainly defined behaviorism by saying that, behaviorism is the scientific study of human behavior. Its real goal is to provide the basic for prediction and control of human beings.

Behavior can be reduced to relationship between stimuli and responses, the S-R Model. A stimulus can be shown to cause a response or a response can be traced back to a stimulus. All behavior can be reduced to this basic component. According to Watson, “life’s most complicated acts are but combinations of these simple stimulus- response patterns of behavior”.


Radical Behaviorism

Developed by BF Skinner, Radical Behaviorism describes a particular school that emerged during the reign of behaviorism. It is distinct from other schools of behaviorism, with major differences in the acceptance of mediating structures, the role of emotions, etc.



Conditioning is the process of learning to react to the environment. Many behaviors have been previously conditioned in the human species by the environment.To gain control of a subject of study the behaviorist must know difference between what behaviors have been preconditioned and what was inherited from past generations. There are two types of conditioning which is;

  • operant
  • classical






Skinner – Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F.Skinner which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning.Skinner (1948) studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a ‘Skinner Box‘ which was similar to Thorndike’s puzzle box.


The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual’s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem.

Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.Besides that, operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence.Skinner used the term operant to refer to any “active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences” (1953).

Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior;

Neutral operant: Responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated.

Reinforcers: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative.

Punishers: Responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.

Components of Operant Conditioning

Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforcers:

  1. Positive reinforces are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward.
  2. Negative reinforces involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.

* In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases.


Punishment is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of punishment:

  1. Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, presents an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows.
  2. Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.

*In both of these cases of punishment, the behavior decreases.